viernes, 22 de abril de 2016
EL GÉNERO Y EL NÚMERO
In spanish is very important to pay atention to the gender and the number of the nouns and adjectives, because many elements change according to this fact.
Some other languages have the same condition, but other languages don't have this concept of gender.
Before we go to more complex lessons, first we have to know how the spanish behaves. The words' gender and number is a basic element to go ahead while learning spanish.
Be patient, because later you are going to go up in a higher lever, but then you will be an expert about this point of grammar.
It is really simple, because the SINGULAR MALE nound and adjectives use the letter "O" at the end of the words (this is the regular case) so we will know that the next words are MALE and SINGULAR words
MALE AND SINGULAR
- ADULTO (ADULT)
- PERIÓDICO (NEWSPAPER
- TELÉFONO (PHONE)
- RICO (RICH)
- MUSEO (MUSEUM)
- ARQUITECTO (ARQUITECT)
- CARRO (CAR)
That is very easy, right?
Now the FEMALE nouns and adjectives normally ends with the letter "A" (in all cases exist some exceptions) but now we are just revewing the regular forms at this point. sp SINGULAR FEMALE words go like this:
FEMALE AND SINGULAR
- MOCHILA (SCHOOLBAG)
- BELLA (BEAUTIFUL)
- LIBRETA (NOTEBOOK)
- CAJA (BOX)
- RICA (RICH)
- MEDICINA (MEDICINE)
- IMPRESORA (PRINTER)
Still easy, right? well now we have a kind of words that end in "E", but this words have a particularity: there are some of this words that can be male or female gender, but there are other words that can be only male or only female gender.
Here you have some ecamples about the words that can be male or female gender using the same word:
Same word with ale and female function:
MALE AND FEMALE SINGULAR ENDING IN "E"
- INTELIGENTE (INTELLIGENT)
- PACIENTE (PATIENT)
- IMPORTANTE (IMPORTANT)
- POBRE (POOR)
- ÁRABE (ARAB)
- FUERTE (STRONG)
- VERDE (GREEN)
- GRANDE (BIG)
- ENORME (HUGE)
Now we have some words that can be ONLY MALE nouns and adjectives:
MALE SINGULAR ENDING IN "E"
- HAMBRE (HUNGER)
- HOMBRE (MAN)
- SOBRE (ENVELOPE)
- GUANTE (GLOVE)
And there are words that belong only to
FEMALE NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES LIKE:
- SUERTE (FORTUNE/RANDOM/LUCK)
- MUERTE (DEATH)
- FUENTE (FONT/SOURCE
- CUMBRE (SUMIT)
- LUMBRE (FIRE)
NOUNS ending in CONSONANT
Not all the spanish words end in O or A or E, but there are other words (nouns than end in CONSONANT but they still need to have a gender. Many other languages have this kind of words and it is very common (like in english). The ending of the word in spanish is very helpful to know what kind of gender it is, it it is important to build a coherent sentence (in english we can not say "The girl is handsome" because handsome is a male adjective as we can't say ·"The strong man is beautiful") The same happens in spanish .
The following list is about the words that end in consonant but they still have a gender:
MALE SINGULAR NOUNS: ENDING IN CONSONANT
- HOSPITAL (HOSPITAL)
- HOTEL (HOTEL)
- TAMBOR (DRUM)
- FESTIVAL (FESTIVAL)
- ALACRÁN (SCORPION)
- TEMBLOR (EARTHQUAKE)
- COLCHÓN (MATRESS)
FEMALE SINGULAR NOUNS that finish in CONSONANT
- VERDAD (TRUTH)
- CIUDAD (CITY)
- UNIVERSIDAD (UNIVERSITY)
- TENTACIÓN (TEMPTATION)
- SEDUCCIÓN (SEDUCTION)
- LABOR (LABOR/WORK/JOB)
- AMISTAD (FRIENDSHIP)
In some cases it is very easy to change the gender of a noun, just by changing the last letter !"O" or "A" like this
MALE "O" - FEMALE "A"
- NIÑO - NIÑA (BOY - GIRL)
- ITALIANO - ITALIANA (ITALIAN)
- CHINO - CHINA (CHINESE)
- RUSO - RUSA (RUSSIAN)
- MEXICANO - MEXICANA (MEXICAN)
- RICO - RICA (RICH)
- ALTO - ALTA (TALL)
- AMERICANO - AMERICANA (AMERICAN)
- BUENO - BUENA (GOOD)
- MALO - MALA (BAD)
To change the gender sometimes it is not that simple... and we cannot simply place the O or A instead. In this new cases we have to use a completly different word. Examples:
Using a different word to get the change of gender
- HOMBRE - MUJER (MAN - WOMAN)
- PADRE - MADRE (FATHER - MOTHER)
- CABALLO - YEGUA (HORSE male and female)
We said that "O" is normally used to indicate the MALE noun and "A" is normally used to indicate the female noun, but there are few exceptions to this rule. in some cases the male nounc can be expressed by words ending in "A" and there is one case in wich the female gender finishes in "O". And let's know that there are words ending in "A" that can be male and female with the same word
NOUNS IN -ISTA USED FOR MALE AND FEMALE
- ARTISTA (ARTIST both cases male and female)
- DENTISTA (DENTIST oth cases)
- TURISTA (TOURIST both cases)
- IDIOTA (IDIOT Both cases)
MALE WORDS ENDING IN "A"
- PROBLEMA (PROBLEM)
- SISTEMA (SYSTEM)
- FONEMA (PHONEM)
There is one case where the female word ends in "O"
- MANO (HAND)
In the most of the cases we just have to add an "S" at the end of the word but now we are going to revew the different examples.
MALE ending in "O" in this cases it is very simple and we just add an "s"
SINGULAR - PLURAL
NIÑO - NIÑOS (BOY - BOYS)
ZAPATO - CAPATOS (SHOE - SHOES
TELÉFONO - TELÉFONOS (TELEPHONE - TELEPHONES)
AMIGO - AMIGOS (FRIEND - FRIENDS)
SOMBRERO - SOMBREROS (HAT - HATS)
The same happens in the FEMALE case... whe normally a word ends in "A" we only have to add an "S" (there are always some few exceptions, be careful).
SINGULAR - PLURAL
- NIÑA - NIÑAS (GIRL - GIRLS)
- REVISTA - REVISTAS (MAGAZIE - MAGAZINES)
- COMPUTAFORA - COMPUTADORAS (COMPUTER - COMPUTERS)
- SOMBRILLA - SOMBRILLAS (OMBRELLA - OBRELLAS)
The next point is about the words that end in "E". To get the plural we just have to add an "S" so the end is "ES"
(Male or female it doesn't matter to get the plural)
SINGULAR - PLURAL
- HOMBRE - HOMBRES (MAN - MEN)
- TORRE - TORRES (TOWER - TOWERS)
- VERDE - VERDES (GREEN)
- ELEGANTE - ELEGANTES (ELEGANT)
- PADRE - PADRES (FATHER - PARENTS/2 FATHERS)
- MADRE - MADRES (MOTHER - 2 MOTHERS
The words ending in CONSONANT are normally very simple, because we only have to add "ES" at the end of the word... it doesn't matter if the gender is MALE or FEMALE
SINGULAR - PLURAL
- SABOR - SABORES (FLAVOR - FLAVORS)
- FAVOR - FAVORES (FAVOR - FAVORS)
- CORAZÓN - CORAZONES (HEART - HEARTS)
- DOLOR - DOLORES (PAIN)
- FRIJOL - FRIJOLES (BEAN - BEANS)
miércoles, 20 de abril de 2016
LOS PRONOMBRES PERSONALES En el español de México
YO - I
TÚ - YOU
USTED - YOU (FORMAL-MALE/FEMALE)
ÉL - HE
ELLA - SHE
NOSOTROS - WE (MALE)
NOSOTRAS - WE (FEMALE)
USTEDES - YOU (PLURAL)
ELLOS - THEY (MALE)
ELLAS - THEY (FEMALE)
In other countries, there are different personal rponouns (like Vós (you-singular), Vosotros and Vosotras (You - Plural), and this may produce some changes in the conjugation of the verbs. In México we can perfectly understand this "foreigner" pronouns, but we don't use it. People from Argentina or Spain and Cuba, Mexico, etc. can understand to each other.
Sometimes it is fun to talk to another foreigner spanish speaker, because we can share and talk about the different ways to name or say something.
For example there is the universal word NIÑO (boy), but each spanish country has its own way to call it (or many other ways in one same countyry) like:
- SPAIN: CRÍO, CHICO
- ARGENTINA: CHAVAL, PIBE
- MÉXICO: CHAMACO, ESCUINCLE, CHAVO, CHICO, PLEBE, MORRO (VERY INFORMAL WAY), ETC.
HERE YOU HAVE A VIDEO TO STUDY AND PRACTICE THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN MEXICO,...
As you can see... some words give the gender to the sustantive (male or female).. in spanish the words that end in O are male and singular, and the words ending in A are singular and female (there are many exceptions that we are going to study in other lesson). That's why you have to pay atebntion to the gender of the word to recognize what pronoun you have to use. It is also important to pay atention to the number of the sustantive (singular or plural) sometimes it is just enough to add an S at the end of the sustantive to make it plural (not in all cases)
Male (Singular - Plural):
Book: Libro - Libros
Female (Singular - Plural)
House Casa - Casas
This is a very important point, so later you will find a lesson about it. Now you have to know this, but the really important point in today's lesson is about the personal pronouns in mexican spanish.
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lunes, 18 de abril de 2016
La Fonética en Español
Phonetic of Spanish
The Phonetic in spanish is very simple, but it also depends on what language you speak as a mothertopngue. Some languages share the same sounds (phonems), and some other languages might not have some phonems that spanish does.
We also have to consider that spanish is spoken in about 21 countries over the world and it is possible to find many variation in this language. In this course we focused our lessons on the Mexican Spanish Variatios, because we are mexican, but also because our country has an estrategic place (near the United States), so Mexico and many countries (including of course the U.S.A.) have important commercial trades.
In The Americas, Mexico has a remarkable place and it represents a closer step towards the U.S.
Let's remember that Tourism is a very important activity in Mexico which means a mean economical ressort.
The 100 million people in Mexico are another great reason to learn the mexican spanish variation. Just Mexico City has more inhabitants than other entire spanish speakers countries.
Of course each spanish country has its own way to speak spanish but we all can understan to each other (something similar happens among arab countries).
If you are ready to start this mexican spanish course, see the next video. The first lesson is about spanish phonetuic.
Have a nice lesson...
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